MongoDB is an open source NoSQL database management program. NoSQL is used as an alternative to traditional relational databases. NoSQL databases are quite useful for working with large sets of distributed data. MongoDB is a tool that can manage document-oriented information, store or retrieve information.
MongoDB supports various forms of data. It is one of the many nonrelational database technologies that arose in the mid-2000s under the NoSQL banner — normally, for use in big data applications and other processing jobs involving data that doesn’t fit well in a rigid relational model. Instead of using tables and rows as in relational databases, the MongoDB architecture is made up of collections and documents.
How it works
Sets of documents are called collections, which function as the equivalent of relational database tables. Collections can contain any type of data, but the restriction is the data in a collection cannot be spread across different databases.
A binary representation of JSON-like documents is provided by the BSON document storage and data interchange format. Automatic sharding is another key feature that enables data in a MongoDB collection to be distributed across multiple systems for horizontal scalability, as data volumes and throughput requirements increase.
The NoSQL DBMS uses a single master architecture for data consistency, with secondary databases that maintain copies of the primary database. Operations are automatically replicated to those secondary databases for automatic failover.
MongoDB was created by Dwight Merriman and Eliot Horowitz, who had encountered development and scalability issues with traditional relational database approaches while building web applications at DoubleClick, an online advertising company that is now owned by Google Inc. The name of the database was derived from the word humongous to represent the idea of supporting large amounts of data.
Merriman and Horowitz helped form 10Gen Inc. in 2007 to commercialize MongoDB and related software. The company was renamed MongoDB Inc. in 2013 and went public in October 2017 under the ticker symbol MDB.
The DBMS was released as open source software in 2009 and is available under the terms of Version 3.0 of the Free Software Foundation’s GNU Affero General Public License, in addition to the commercial licenses offered by MongoDB Inc.
Organizations like the insurance company MetLife have used MongoDB for customer service applications, while other websites like Craigslist have used it for archiving data, and the CERN physics lab has used it for data aggregation and discovery. Additionally, The New York Times has used MongoDB to support a form-building application for photo submissions.
Advantages of MongoDB
The following are the few advantages of MongoDB NoSQL database over relational databases.
- MongoDB is a schema-less NoSQL database. We do not need to design the schema of the database when we are using MongoDB. This saves a lot of time. Thus, the code we write defines the schema.
- No complex joins are needed in MongoDB. There is no relationship among data in MongoDB.
- MongoDB is easy to scale.
- It is very easy to set-up and install MongoDB.
- The document query language supported by MongoDB is very simple as compared to SQL queries.
- Because the MongoDB uses JSON format to store data, it is very easy to store arrays and objects.
- MongoDB is free to use. There is no cost for it.
- Performance of MongoDB is much higher than compared to any relational database.
- There is no need for mapping of application objects to database objects in MongoDB.
- MongoDB uses internal memory for storage which enables faster access to the data.
Disadvantages of MongoDB
There are a few disadvantages of the MongoDB NoSQL database as well.
- MongoDB uses high memory for data storage.
- There is a limit for document size, i.e. 16mb.
- There is no transaction support in MongoDB